Unit 7A - Cognition: Memory - pages 255-297

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APA Content Standard Area: Memory

After concluding this unit, students understand:
1. Encoding of memory
2. Storage of memory
3. Retrieval of memory
Content Standard 1: Encoding of memory
1.1 Identify factors that influence encoding.
1.2 Characterize the difference between shallow (surface) and deep (elaborate) processing.
1.3 Discuss strategies for improving the encoding of memory.
Content Standard 2: Storage of memory
2.1 Describe the differences between working memory and long-term memory.
2.2 Identify and explain biological processes related to how memory is stored.
2.3 Discuss types of memory and memory disorders (e.g., amnesias, dementias).
2.4 Discuss strategies for improving the storage of memories.
Content Standard 3: Retrieval of memory
3.1 Analyze the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
3.2 Explain the role that interference plays in retrieval.
3.3 Discuss the factors influencing how memories are retrieved.
3.4. Explain how memories can be malleable.
3.5 Discuss strategies for improving the retrieval of memories.

Key Terms

Memory encoding
Storage retrieval
Sensory memory short-term memory
Long-term memory working memory
Parallel processing automatic processing
Effortful processing rehearsal
Spacing effect serial position effect
Visual encoding acoustic encoding
Semantic encoding imagery
Mnemonics chunking
Iconic memory echoic memory
Flashbulb memory long-term potentiation (LTP)
Amnesia implicit memory
Explicit memory hippocampus
Recall recognition
Relearning priming
Déjà vu mood congruent memory
Proactive interference retroactive interference
Repression misinformation effect
Source amnesia

Practice Multiple Choice Questions from textbook


Memory outline notes - all of 7A

Slate Article on Memory

Secrets of a Mind-Gamer

Information Processing

9 Types of Mnemonics

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Peg Words Mnemonic Device

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Memory Champion shares his technique

MEMORY – Rank the following problems from “most closely relates to you” to “causes the least problem”.
  1. “I just can’t remember anything when I take tests.”

  1. “I remember the information when I’m studying, but I forget it the day of the test.”

  1. “I can’t even remember information while I am studying, much less during the test.”

  1. “My memory is so bad that I can’t even remember three pieces of information!”

  1. “I remember things I read in the textbook, but I can’t seem to remember what the teacher talks about in class.”

  1. “I remember every word the teacher says in class, but I have trouble remembering information from what I read.”

  1. “I’m just so bored with what we have to learn. I can’t remember things if they’re not interesting to me.”

Solutions to these problems discussed and demonstrated in class!



Trusting your Memory

When Memory Fails


Memory Construction

Reliability of Eye Witness Testimony

Opener: What is the misinformation effect?
  • When are people susceptible to misinformation?
  • Who is susceptible to misinformation?
  • What happens to the original memory?
  • Do people genuinely believe the misinformation?

Activity 1 - The Eyewitness Test

Activity 2 - Read and mark up the following article:
Scientific American Article
Why Science tells us not to rely on eyewitness accounts
January 2010
- Mark up digitally using either the "Comment" option in Microsoft Word OR using an online mark up tool, such as Crocodoc or JustPaste.it

Activity 3 - Transfer notes
  • On the right side of your two column notes, write three quotes or phrases you selected to raise to the group.
  • On the left side, write any questions, points of agreement or disagreement you want to make about the quote or segment.

Activity 4 - Save the Last Word

Add at least one quote from each member in your group to your notes.

Activity 5 - Summary
Write a paragraph summarizing the main points of discussion from your group. Share your own thoughts on the article and the reliability of eyewitness testimony.

Activity 6 - Critical Thinking
Role play the following situation: As a member of a jury, you have listened to an eye-witness to the crime. His information is taken very seriously by the other members of the jury. Explain to them why eye-witness memory may not be as reliable as they believe it to be.

Post a response to the prompt on the following WallWisher discussion board

  1. What are the major assumptions of the information processing model of memory?
  2. What are some examples of shallow and deep processing of information?
  3. Can you devise any mnemonic devices to help encode information about psychology concepts?
  4. Describe some methods for increasing the capacity of short-term memory.
  5. What are the differences between implicit and explicit memories? Provide examples of each type.
  6. What are your earliest childhood memories? How accurate do you think they are? Why?

The Innocence Project - video
Case study an an eyewitness who falsely convicted a man for 11 years

Memory Games

NASA Memory games
Includes the Mnemonic Generator

Simon - test your memory
Online version of an 80s memory game

Memory Test

The Stroop Effect