Midterm Review

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Units 1-8


1. Perspectives/History (2–4% of AP exam)
  • Historical perspectives-structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt, behaviorism, psychoanalysis-know who the major names are associated with each (James, Watson, Freud, Skinner…)
  • Current perspectives-biological view, developmental view, cognitive view, psychodynamic view, humanistic view, behavioral view, sociocultural view, Evolutionary view

2. Research Methods (8-10%)
  • 5 steps of the scientific method
  • Types of research:
    • Experiment
      • Independent/dependent/confounding variables
      • Control/experiment group
      • Types of bias/sources of bias
    • Correlational Study/survey
    • Observation/naturalistic observation
    • Ex post facto
    • Longitudinal study
    • Cross sectional study
    • Cohort sequential study
  • Statistical analysis: mean, median, mode, correlation coefficient, histogram, “statistically significant”
  • Ethical standards (deception and debriefing)
  • Random sample vs. random assignment

3. Biopsychology (8–10%)
  • Evolution/natural selection-Darwin’s theories
  • Genetics/inheritance
  • Nature vs. Nurture
  • Neurons-Parts, functions, types, neurotransmitters
  • Divisions of the nervous system-CNS, PNS-somatic, autonomic-sympathetic, parasympathetic
  • Three layers of the brain-brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortex
    • All major parts and functions
    • All the lobes of the cerebral cortex
  • Cerebral dominance/split brain

4. Sensation/Perception (6-8%)
  • Transduction-changing stimuli to sensation
  • Sensory adaptation
  • Thresholds-absolute, Just Noticeable Difference…
  • Signal detection Theory
  • Specific senses-vision and hearing
  • Perceptual processing-The binding problem, bottom up processing, top down processing
  • Perceptual consistency
  • Figure and ground
  • Closure
  • The Gestalt Laws-perceptual grouping, law of similarity, law of proximity, law of common fate
  • Binocular vs. monocular clues
  • Perceptual sets

5. States of Consciousness (2–4%)
  • Conscious vs. non-conscious processing
  • Levels of the non-conscious mind
  • Sleep: Circadian rhythms, REM vs. N-REM, all the sleep stages, sleep paralysis
  • Dreams-current theories vs. Freudian theories
    • Manifest content vs. Latent content
  • Hypnosis
  • Psychoactive drugs

6. Learning (7–9%)
  • Learning vs. instinct
  • Simple and complex learning
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Classical conditioning
    • Neutral stimulus
    • Acquisition
    • Extinction
    • Discrimination
    • Spontaneous recovery
  • Operant conditioning
    • Law of effect
    • Reinforce-positive and negative reinforcement
    • Punishment-positive and negative reinforcement
    • B.F. Skinner
    • Schedules of reinforcement-continuous vs. intermittent, ratio vs. interval
      • Shaping
    • Primary vs. secondary reinforces
    • Token economy
  • Wolfgang Kohler-study with chimps
  • Cognitive maps
  • Latent learning
  • Observational learning-Bobo doll experiment

7. Cognition (8-10%)
  • Memory:
    • 3 basic processes/information processing model: encoding, storage, retrieval
    • Eidetic memory
    • Sensory memory
    • Working Memory
    • Long term memory
    • Chunking, rehearsal
    • Levels of processing theory
    • Declarative memory
    • Episodic memory
    • Procedural memory
    • Semantic memory
    • Engram
    • Anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia
    • Flashbulb memory
    • Implicit vs. Explicit Memory
    • Priming
    • Recall vs. Recognition
    • Mood-memory congruent
    • Schacter’s Seven Sins of Memory
      • Transience
      • Absent mindedness
      • Blocking
        • Proactive interference/Retroactive interference/serial position effect
      • Misattribution
      • Suggestibility
      • Bias
      • Persistence
  • Language structures of the brain-LAD
  • Acquiring vocabulary

8. Emotion and Motivation (6-8%)
  • Plutchik’s Emotion Wheel
  • Nueroscience of emotion-role of limbic system (amygdale, hypocampus, reticular formation, cerebral cortex)
  • James-Lang Theory vs. Cannon-Bard Theory
  • Two-Factor Theory
  • Opponent –process theory
  • The inverted U/Yerkes Dodson Model
  • Types of motivation-intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
  • Theories of Motivation
    • Instinct Theory
    • Drive Theory
    • Cognitive Theory of Loci
    • Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Stress vs. Stressor
    • Traumatic stressors/PTSD
      • 5 stages of recovery
      • Physical response to stress, Fight or Flight
      • General Adaptation Syndrome
      • Type A/Type B Patterns

Key Term List

APA Standards

Practice Multiple Choice Questions

Other Reviews

- review of the perspectives in psychology

- how we study the brain

- review of all neurotransmitters

- concept maps by unit (entire course)


New Link to get to the PsychSim Labs
-Browse by chapter to find the psychsim links
Handout Questions
-Psychology's Timeline
(completed over summer)
-Descriptive Statistics
-What's wrong with this study?

-Hemispheric Specialization
-Mind Reading Monkeys
-Neural Messages
-Brain and Behavior
-Dueling Brains

-Auditory System
-Visual Illusions
-Colorful World

-Your Mind on Drugs
-EEG and Sleep Stages

-Operant Conditioning
-Classical Conditioning
-Maze Learning
-Helplessly Hoping
-Short Term Memory

-Iconic Memory
-My Head is Spinning
-Trusting your memory
-When memory fails

-Hunger and the Fat Rat
-Expressing Emotion
-All Stressed Out
-Catching Liars

Review Links

SparkNotes - AP Psych Review
Broken down by topics

Cliffsnotes - AP Psych
Review by topics

AP Psych Review Flashcards


Great quick reviews by unit

Statistics Workshop

The Psych Files
Visual and auditory organizers that review key concepts and how they connect

AP Psych Review videos
Review clips on almost every topic

Practice Tests


Practice Tests
huge link of practice tests by subject, with answers

Practice Test 1
Full practice exam with great explanations of the answers including FRQs

Practice Test 2
Full practice exam with great explanations of the answers including FRQs

AP Psych Ipod app
Test review app - 5 ways to get a 5

PsycTest Hero